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DEEP SEABED HARD MINERALS

HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON OCEANOGRAPHY

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON MERCHANT MARINE AND FISHERIES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

NINETY-THIRD CONGRESS

ON

H.R. 9, H.R. 7732 BILLS TO PROVIDE THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR WITH AUTHORITY TO PROMOTE THE CONSERVATION AND ORDERLY DEVELOPMENT OF THE HARD MINERAL RESOURCES OF THE DEEP SEABED, PENDING ADOPTION OF AN INTERNATIONAL

REGIME THEREFOR

MARCH 1, 28, 29, APRIL 3, 1973

H.R. 12233

A BILL TO PROMOTE THE CONSERVATION AND ORDERLY DEVELOPMENT OF HARD MINERAL RESOURCES OF THE DEEP SEABED, PENDING ADOPTION OF AN INTERNATIONAL REGIME

RELATING THERETO

FEBRUARY 26, 27, 28, 1974

Serial No. 93-27

Printed for the use of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

31-659

WASHINGTON : 1974

8

COMMITTEE ON MERCHANT MARINE AND FISHERIES

LEONOR K. (Mrs. John B.) SULLIVAN, Missouri, Chairman FRANK M. CLARK, Pennsylvania

JAMES R. GROVER, JR., New York THOMAS L. ASHLEY, Ohio

WILLIAM S. MAILLIARD, California JOHN D. DINGELL, Michigan

CHARLES A. MOSHER, Ohio THOMAS N. DOWNING, Virginia

PHILIP E. RUPPE, Michigan PAUL G. ROGERS, Florida

GEORGE A. GOODLING, Pennsylvania FRANK A. STUBBLEFIELD, Kentucky PAUL N. MCCLOSKEY, JR., California JOHN M. MURPHY, New York

GENE SNYDER, Kentucky WALTER B. JONES, North Carolina ROBERT H. STEELE, Connecticut ROBERT L. LEGGETT, California

EDWIN B. FORSYTHE, New Jersey MARIO BIAGGI, New York

PIERRE S. (PETE) DU PONT, Delaware GLENN M. ANDERSON, California

WILLIAM O. MILLS, Maryland 1 E (KIKA) DE LA GARZA, Texas

WILLIAM S. COHEN, Maine PETER N. KYROS, Maine

TRENT LOTT, Mississippi RALPH H. METCALFE, Illinois

DAVID C. TREEN, Louisiana JOHN B. BREAUX, Louisiana

JOEL PRITCHARD, Washington FRED B. ROONEY, Pennsylvania

ED YOUNG, South Carolina BOB ECKHARDT, Texas

DON YOUNG, Alaska 2
PAUL S. SARBANES, Maryland

ROBERT E. BAUMAN, Maryland 3
BO GINN, Georgia
GERRY E. STUDDS, Massachusetts
DAVID R. BOWEN, Mississippi

ERNEST J. CORRADO, Chief Counsel

FRANCES STILL, Chief Clerk

FRANCIS D. HEYWARD, Counsel
RICHARD N. SHAROOD, Minority Counsel
CHARLES A. BEDELL, Minority Counsel 4

SUBCOMMITTEE ON OCEANOGRAPHY

THOMAS N. DOWNING, Virginia, Chairman PAUL G. ROGERS, Florida

CHARLES A. MOSHER, Ohio THOMAS L. ASHLEY, Ohio

ROBERT H. STEELE, Connecticut WALTER B. JONES, North Carolina EDWIN B. FORSYTHE, New Jersey ROBERT L. LEGGETT, California

PIERRE S. (PETE) DU PONT, Delaware GLENN M. ANDERSON, California

PAUL N. MCCLOSKEY, JR., California E (KIKA) DE LA GARZA, Texas

WILLIAM S. COHEN, Maine BO GINN, Georgia

TRENT LOTT, Mississippi MARIO BIAGGI, New York

DAVID C. TREEN, Louisiana PETER N. KYROS, Maine

JOEL PRITCHARD, Washington RALPH H. METCALFE, Illinois

ED YOUNG, South Carolina JOHN B. BREAUX, Louisiana

DON YOUNG, Alaska 3 BOB ECKHARDT, Texas

ROBERT E. BAUMAN, Maryland : GERRY E. STUDDS, Massachusetts

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CONTENTS

195

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Hearings held-

Page

March 1, 1973---

1

March 28, 1973-

61

March 29, 1973.

149

April 3, 1973..

February 26, 1974.

355

February 27, 1974.

407

February 28, 1974.

453

Text of

H.R. 9.

1

H.R. 7732

1

H.R. 12233

357

Reports from-

General Accounting Office.

5

Justice Department--

6

State Department.

7

Statement of

Anderson, Hon. Glenn, a Representative in Congress from the State

of California.

80

Ary, T. S., vice president, Union Carbide Exploration Corp., appear-

ing on behalf of the American Mining Congress..

263

Boettcher, Robert, consultant from the Subcommittee on International

Organizations and Movements -

366

Brower, Charles N., Acting Legal Adviser, U.S. Department of State. 15

Burgess, C. H., vice president, exploration, Kennecott Copper Corp.,

appearing on behalf of the American Mining Congress--

300

Center of Concern Toward Global Justice in the Exploitation of the

Seabeds -.

327

Corbett, J. Elliott, director, Department of Church/Government

Relations, Board of Church and Society of the United Methodist
Church

187
Dubs, Marne A., chairman, Committee on Undersea Mineral Re-

sources, American Mining Congress, and director, Ocean Resources
Department, Kennecott Copper Corp-

66, 409
Dugger, John A., Deputy Director, Law of the Sea, Task Force,

Office of the Assistant Secretary for International Security Affairs,

U.S. Department of Defense-

15

Elliott, Pierce, Assistant Solicitor, International Law, Department of

the Interior

371

Finlay, Luke W., on behalf of American Petroleum Institute.-

325
Flipse, John E., president, Deepsea Ventures, Inc.---

81

Fraser, Hon. Donald M., a Representative in Congress from the State

of Minnesota...

366

Freeman, N. W., chairman of the boards of Tenneco, Inc., and Deep-
sea Ventures,

83

French, Stuart P., Director, Law of the Sea Task Force, International

Security Affairs, Department of Defense..

371

Goldie, L. F. E., professor of law, director, international legal studies
program, Syracuse University

99

Greenwald, Richard, representing J. E. Flipse, president, Deepsea

Ventures, Inc., Gloucester, Va..

409

Hood, Edwin M., president and board chairman, Shipbuilders Council

of America.

144

Houseman, C. Thomas, vice president, the Chase Manhattan Bank.. 318
Jarvis, Destry, National Parks and Conservation Association -

497

Kilmarx, Dr. Robert A., director of business and defense research,

Center for Strategic and International Studies, Georgetown Uni-

versity

453

Inc.

Statement of—Continued

Page Levering, Samuel R., secretary, Save Our Seas—The U.S. Committee for the Oceans

-- 175, 471 Logue, Dr. John J., World Order Research Institute, Villanova University --

151 Meeker, Leonard C., representing the Environmental Policy Center,

the Friends of the Earth, the Natural Resources Defense Council,
and The Sierra Club

487 Moore, Dr. John Norton, Counselor on International Law, U.S.

Department of State, Chairman, National Security Council, Inter-
agency Task Force on Law of the Sea, and Deputy Special Repre-
sentative of the President for the Conference on the Law of the
Sea.

15, 371 Pollock, Howard W., Deputy Administrator, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce

15, 371 Ratiner, Leigh S., Director of Ocean Resources, Office of the Assistant

Secretary for Mineral Resources, U.S. Department of the Interior.- 15 Roels, Dr. Oswald A., chairman, Biological Oceanography, Lamont

Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University, and
professor, City Institute of Oceanography --

195 Savit, Carl H., vice chairman, National Ocean Industries Association,

and senior vice president, Western Geophysical Co. of America,
Houston, Tex.

445 Wilson, Hon. Bob, a Representative in Congress from the State of California.

407 World Association of World Federalists..

151 Worthington, Howard, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Trade, Department of the Treasury

371 Additional material submitted byAry, T. S.: Developing Deficits in U.S. Primary Mineral Demands..

269 Preliminary Provisions for Domestic Legislation for the Interim Period.

292 Statement of American Mining Congress, with Respect to Work

ing Paper of the Draft United Nations Convention on the
International Seabed Area --

285 Brower, Charles N.: Prepared statement

24 Burgess, C. H.: Prepared statement.-

304 Downing, Hon. Thomas N.:

Article from the Washington Post of April 3, 1973: U.S. Presses
on Seabed Pact....

322
Article from the Wall Street Journal of December 17, 1973: Law
of the Sea: Enough's Enough.

364 Article from the Congressional Record of December 20, 1973: Deep Ocean Floor Hard Minerals Act..

365 Goldie, L.F.E.: International impact statements and the conservation of the ocean environment.

117 Kennecott Copper Corp.:

News Release—Ocean Mining R. & D. Program Announced.. 443
Ocean Mining Fact Sheet-

443 Kilmarx, Dr. Robert A.: Prepared statement

458
Moore, John Norton: Prepared statement.-
Petersen, Nancy P., and John R. Justus: Deep-Sea Hard Minerals:
Background Analysis for Legislation.--.

333 Ratiner, Leigh S.: Prepared statement

36 Roels, Dr. Oswald A.:

Cruise report R/V Conrad 15–10, July 1972—Baseline Observa

tions of Physical, Chemical, and Biological Parameters in a

Manganese Nodule Area in the North Atlantic (Bermuda Rise)-- 213 Literature Review of Biological and Chemical Properties of the

Sea Floor and the Water Column in Manganese Nodule Areas.- 200 Monitoring of a Manganese Nodule Mining Test by an Airlift Pumping System (Blake Plateau July-August 1970).

232 Prepared statement

198, 484 Report of Our Monitoring of Continuous Line Bucket Dredge

Manganese Mining Test in the North Pacific During August
and September 1972..

243

61 Page

396

397

400

388

391

503

500

431

Additional material submitted by--Continued
Sharood, Richard N.:

Article from the New York Times of January 9, 1974: Subter

ranean Politics..
Article from the Science Magazine - Raw Materials: U.S.

Grows More Vulnerable to Third World Cartels.
Article from the Washington Post of February 8, 1974: State

Doubts Imitation of Cartel in Oil.---
State Department:

Answers to questions of Mr. Heyward..
Raw materials other than oil as economic weapons against the

United States and other major consumers
Communications submitted for the record-

Barkenbus, Jack N., letter of March 18, 1974, to Subcommittee on

Oceanography with paper entitled “International Implications of

Manganese Nodule Mining”.
Brandel, Roland E., letter of March 15, 1974, to Hon. Thomas N.

Downing -
Dubs, M. A.:

Letter of April 6, 1974, to Representative Thomas N. Downing

with suggested detailed changes to H.R. 12233.-
Letter of April 8, 1974, to Hon. Thomas N. Downing with a paper:

Comment on an Alternative Approach to Reciprocity and
Security of Investment Utilizing the Consortia Approach to
Multinational Cooperative Activity and Based Upon National

Access to Marine Product..
Finlay, Luke W., letter of April 9, 1973, to Hon. Thomas N. Downing--
Flipse, J. E.:

Letter of March 12, 1974, to Hon. Thomas N. Downing---
Goldie, L. F. E.:

Letter of April 23, 1973, to Hon. Thomas H. Downing with a
proposed additional provision to the Deep Seabed Hard Mineral

Resources Act..
Hargis, William J., Jr., letter of March 19, 1973, to Hon. Thomas N.

Downing-
Houseman, C. T., letter of March 29, 1973, to Hon. Thomas N.

Downing -
Moody, 0. William, Jr., letter of March 26, 1973, to Hon. Thomas N.

Downing-
Overton, J. Allen, Jr., letter of April 12, 1972, to Robert M. White---
Ryan, William F., letter of April 11, 1973, to Hon. Thomas

N. Downing

512 323

410

330

149

318

320 311

327

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