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Under Secretary of State Ball, on Speech Review Board of Ap-
Ball, Hon. George W., Under Secretary of State---
Division, Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, 1st U.S. Army- 2550
Headquarters Continental Air Command, Robins Air Force Base, Ga... 2597
MILITARY COLD WAR EDUCATION AND SPEECH
WEDNESDAY, MAY 16, 1962
Washington, D.C. The special subcommittee met, pursuant to recess, at 10:05 a.m., in room 224, Old Senate Office Building.
Present: Senators Stennis (chairman), Thurmond, and Bartlett.
Also present: Special subcommittee staff: James T. Kendall, chief counsel."
Senator STENNIS (presiding). Let the subcommittee come to order, please.
Good morning, Major.
We are glad to have you here this morning, Major Buchsbaum. In keeping with the practice of the subcommittee, will you stand and be sworn, please?
Do you solemnly swear that your testimony before this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God?
Major BUCHSBAUM. I do.
Senator STENNIS. All right, sir.
Have a seat. We are delighted to have you here, sir. I understand you have a prepared statement.
We have a biographical sketch that we will put in the record at this place, Mr. Reporter.
(The biographical sketch referred to is as follows:) BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ON John H. BUCHSBAUM, MAJOR, GS (ARTY-AI) 0583087
I was born in Czechoslovakia on December 24, 1910, attended the University of Prague and received a doctor of law (J.U.Dr.) degree in 1934. I served the compulsory 2-year tour of active duty as a second lieutenant in the Czechoslovak Army and subsequently was twice called to active duty during the crises of 1938 and 1939. I was a publisher in civilian life.
In June 1939, after the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, I fled to England and immigrated into the United States in February 1941.
I entered the U.S. Army in January 1943, attended Army Air Corps OCS and was commissioned a second lieutenant in November 1943. I served as legal officer at Camp Springs, Md., until June 1944, attended the Military Intelligence Training Center at Camp Ritchie, Md., and went overseas in August 1944.
In Europe, I served as one of a number of U.S. officers with a British strategic intelligence installation (CSDIC, England) until December 1944, then was assigned as OIC to a military intelligence team and was attached first to Ninth Army and then to the 71st Infantry Division. From July 1945 to March 1946, I was Chief of the Documentation Section, Office of the U.S. Chief Counsel (Nurnberg trials). I was discharged in May 1946.
After 2 years in civilian life, I was called to active duty in June 1948 and served for 4 years with the Office of the Chief of Military History, first as Chief of the Research Branch, and later as a historian in the Special Studies Division. During that time, I attended the Graduate School of Georgetown University at night and received a Ph. D. in modern European history.
I was assigned to G-2, Hq USAREUR, as a desk chief, from July 1952 to July 1955; as a training staff officer, plans officer, and finally Chief, Plans and Operations Branch, G-2, First U.S. Army, from July 1955 to August 1958; during that time, I also served as Deputy G-2 for “Operation Mercy” at Camp Kilmer from October 1956 to January 1957. From September 1958 to June 1959, I attended the intelligence officers advanced course at the USAINTS, Fort Holabird, Md. I was assigned to the Office of U.S. Commander, Berlin, in July 1959 and served as the G-2, Allied Staff, Berlin, until June 1960, when I was medically evacuated to Walter Reed Army Hospital.
I was discharged from Walter Reed in September 1960 and assigned to G-2, First U.S. Army, where I am now Chief, Review Branch, Personnel Security Division. In addition, I am teaching, in my off-duty time, night courses in European history at Pace College, New York City, with the rank of adjunct associate professor.
Senator STENNIS. Will you proceed, Major, with your statement ? TESTIMONY OF MAJ. JOHN H. BUCHSBAUM, CHIEF OF THE REVIEW
BRANCH, PERSONNEL SECURITY DIVISION, OFFICE OF THE
I am Maj. John H. Buchsbaum. I am Chief of the Review Branch, Personnel Security Division, Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, First U.S. Army. I wish to make clear that I am not speaking for the Department of the Army. I have been called to testify on my own views only, and that is what I am doing.
It is my understanding that the subcommittee wishes me to discuss education concerning communism in military and civilian life, and experiences in these areas during my recent assignment in Berlin.
İ have been connected with the personnel security program for only about 15 months. There are many Army officers and DA civilians who have spent much more time in the security or troop information programs, respectively. They have more experience and are better qualified than I to testify about the problem of making our young people aware of the Communist danger. It is true, however, that I have seen, during the past 15 months, the cases of youngsters who have become involved with subversive organizations and activities. As a matter of personal interest, I have attempted to go beyond the mere facts of affiliation and association. I have tried to understand the why as far as possible.
The types of cases handled by my branch pertain to civilian employees of the Army, soldiers on active duty and in the Reserves, candidates for appointment to commissions, and Regular registrants being processed for induction into the Army under the selective service law. The cases concerning civilian employees, Active Army personnel, and reservists are comparatively few. The reason for this is obvious: most of them have passed through a screening process before, and most of the undesirables have been weeded out.
By far most of our cases pertain to preinductees. Only a very small percentage of the young men appearing at the recruiting stations are of interest to the personnel security program. Of these who are brought to our attention and are investigated because of questions regarding their loyalty, only very few are found to be really affiliated and associated with subversive organizations, or to favor ideologies inimical to the best interests of the United States. It is this small percentage of potential inductees with whom we are concerned here.
Young people who have at one time or another favored subversive ideologies may be divided into two main groups: Children of Communist sympathizers who have grown up in an environment permeated with Communist influence, and youngsters who turn to communism because of deep inner frustration, regardless of their parents' views.
To discuss the first group first: Just as the cultural or religious environment of a family has a deep and lasting influence on the children, so does the political climate of the home greatly contribute to their political development. In most of our cases of this kind, the parents turned to communism during the depression and have either become so deeply involved that Communist activities have become their main purpose in life, or they have gradually become disinterested, but have never made the break. From their early childhood, their children have been exposed to subversive influences, have attended Communist camps, schools, parties, and meetings, under the sponsorship of their parents. Some of these children followed their parents into subversive affiliations.
In quite a few cases, however, the children-who had a chance to acquaint themselves with our free political philosophy in school and in their daily lives—are turning away from the subversive proclivities of their parents despite the home influences and, in most such cases, even turn against their parents with rebellion and contempt. We find that they are trying to forget their past parent-induced Communist activities. They explain during interviews how they have become convinced, through rational examination of the facts, that these ideas are phony. Without having kept statistics on this point, I wish to express my feeling that, on the whole, the Communists are losing the struggle for the second generation.
Let us now briefly examine the second group that I mentioned, the individuals who turn to communism because of frustration, and not because of subversive parental influences. I even dare to make the sweeping statement that whenever you look at a Communist, you look at an unhappy and frustrated person. And I may add here, which I did not include in my prepared statement, that we have seen cases where this even borders on emotional disturbance. We have found many such instances in our security cases.
Some of these frustrations are broken homes, alcoholic parents, neglect, overly strict discipline, economic plight, racial discrimination, inability to keep up in school, disappointment on a job or inability to find a job, or a general maladjustment to their environment or life in general.
I am no psychologist, but I feel that those young people are attempting to find a group in which they can share their frustrations with other equally frustrated individuals, where they can find recognition, even be a “big shot,” or where they can fight the world which they blame for their
own shortcomings. The Communists, of course,